Boko haram faction releases book on history and ideology a flag belonging to boko haram flies from a mosque in the retaken town of damasak, nigeria, march 18, 2015 emmanuel braunreuters. By contrast, middle eastern and south asian countries such as indonesia, malaysia and singapore, like nigeria, make tackling ideology a central thesis of their deradicalisation programmes. This paper aims to examine the historical evolution of boko haram, its causes, recruitment, ideology, area of operation and the ways through which the problem can be solved. Boko haram and ansaru stakeholder analysis august 2016 boko haram profile boko haram bh is a sunni islamist armed group based in borno state in northeast nigeria. What do we know about drivers of radicalisation and. The origins of boko haramand why it matters by audu bulama. Jtf arrests customs officer over aiding arms importation, daily newswatch, 29 may 20. History of boko haram founded in the muslimdominated northern nigeria in 2002 by mohammed yusuf, boko haram was originally labeled as the nigerian taliban because of its ideology and methods. The boko haram becoming so complex, defensive and offensive is due to what mao tsetung.
Boko haram is an islamist militant group based in northern nigeria and the lake chad region. It analyses the causes of the uprising against the nigerian state and evaluates the consequences of the ongoing conflict from a religious, social and. Instead, the focus has been on rankandfile members. Ali, espoused antistate ideology and called on other muslims to join the group and.
Nov 11, 2014 boko haram is an islamist extremist group responsible for dozens of massacres of civilians and the abduction of more than 500 women and girls in its fiveyear insurgency in nigeria. However, boko haram has persistently terrorised in the northern parts of nigeria and its. The theory and reality of boko haram institute for global change. Based on the case of boko haram, or jamaatu ahlissunnah liddaawati wal jihad people committed to the propagation of the prophets teachings and jihad to give it its real name, this chapter. The analysis has identified the following as key strengths of boko haram. The boko haram and nigerian jihadism yossef bodansky feb no.
This comprehensive report examines boko harams extremist rhetoric, leadership, and history of violent activities. The history of boko haram boko harams origins lie in a group of radical islamist youth who worshipped at the alhaji muhammadu ndimi mosque in maiduguri a decade ago. The case of boko haram in nigeria stability journal. Many extremist groups promote an ideology that classifies women as secondclass citizens and offers strategic and financial benefits through womens subjugation. Boko haram and sexual violence as a weapon of warfare. Pdf the ideological evolution of boko haram in nigeria.
Throughout its sixyear campaign, the ideology of boko haram, the nigerian jihadi group, has. Kingsley omonobi, army blocks move by boko haram to hoist flag in damatru, vanguard, 26 october 2012. There are some members who joined boko haram due to their belief in the groups religious ideology and the lure of fighting against unislamic elements. In 2006 late yusuf personally handed me a press release that stated, islam permits them to subsist under a modern govt, but has explicitly prohibited them from supporting such govts as far as their. Boas presented the kanamma commune, which he terms the taleban groups sic, as a different group from boko haram, while mohammed notes that the two shared the same ideology and that the remainder of the kanamma militants joined boko haram. Boko haram, a movement claiming to act in the name of is lam, has killed tens of thousands of people in nigeria and the neighboring countries of niger, chad, and cameroon. It examines the early history of the sect and its transformation into a radical armed group.
Dealing with boko haram defectors in the lake chad basin. Although widely referred to as the boko haram western education is forbidden, it prefers to be called by its original name jamaatu ahlissunnah liddaawati. The potential for boko haram to evolve from being a local to a regional or global threat is clear, and there are signs that several boko haram factions have already abandoned nigeriaoriented objectives in favor of embracing transnational militant objectives history and ideology from 2002 to 2009, boko haram was led by mohammed yusuf, a charis. Since the abduction of 276 highschool girls in chibok, borno state, nigeria, in 2014, boko haram has demonstrated that slavery was a way of handling prisonersofwar.
Apr 30, 2019 by contrast, middle eastern and south asian countries such as indonesia, malaysia and singapore, like nigeria, make tackling ideology a central thesis of their deradicalisation programmes. Boko haram, the islamic state, alqaeda, alshabab, and other groups use sexual violence to terrorize populations into compliance, displace civilians from strategic areas. Explaining boko haram, nigerias islamist insurgency the. An assessment of strengths, vulnerabilities, and policy options from previous hit. It wants to wage a war against them, and the federal republic of nigeria generally, to create a pure islamic state ruled by sharia law. The theory and reality of boko haram institute for global. Boko haram translates from hausa to western education is forbidden. Understanding the threat posed by boko haram in order to understand how the boko haram insurgency threatens security, it is pertinent to provide a background of its evolution.
Boko haram is an islamic faction that believes the political institutions of the north have been taken over by a group of false and corrupt muslims. The shaded area illustrates boko harams general area of operations in 20152016. Boko harams religious and political worldview brookings institution. Boko harams ideology has played in indoctrinating a new cadre of militants in northern cameroon indicate the. The movement is unique in that it combines a sectarian, radical islamic agenda with violence. Others support the groups agenda of creating an islamic state and erasing the western influences and presence in africa. The origins of boko haramand why it matters by audu. Examining the boko haram insurgency in northern nigeria and the quest for a permanent resolution of the crisis joseph olukayode akinbi ph. Boko haram, a once obscure islamist terrorist group in northern ni geria, has quickly risen to prominence by expanding its influence across africas most populous and oilrich country.
Nigerias boko haram the council on foreign relations cfr is an independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher dedicated to being a resource for its members. Boko haram faction releases book on history and ideology. Some analysts argued that the affiliation between boko haram and is was a desperate move by boko haram to boost its members morale, image and attract local support after the african union coalition force drove the group into the sambisa forest. This book focuses on boko haram and terrorism in nigeria, framing the conflict in an international law. Abdulbasit kassim, a phd candidate at rice university on intellectual history of islam in africa.
Public opinion on the root causes of terrorism and objectives of. Boko haram is an islamic sect that believes politics in northern nigeria has. Since 2009, boko haram has transformed itself from a cultlike religious movement into a revolutionary insurgent organization. The ideology and philosophy of the movement can best be understood through giving an explanation of the two key words boko and haram. Based on the case of boko haram, or jamaatu ahlissunnah liddaawati wal jihad people committed to the propagation of the prophets teachings and jihad to. In reference to recent boko haram attacks in the lake chad region. The boko haram, hitherto a relatively simple and mechanical group of socially excluded islamic seminary students graduated to a violent, destructive, complex and organic one capable of creating anomie condition. Boko haram is an extremist sect in nigeria that has caused. Jan 14, 2016 the ideology of boko haram, a nigerian jihadi group that has pledged allegiance to the islamic state, is often described as opposition to democracy and rejection of westernstyle education. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.
Although widely referred to as the boko haram western education is forbidden, it prefers to be called by its original name. The easy spread of the jihadist ideology, the jihadist movements success in massively recruiting followers among local populations. Boko haram follows a purely military insurgency model and currently has no political front. Nigerias boko haram the council on foreign relations cfr is an independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher dedicated to being a. In april 2015, the nigerian government considered the offensive against boko haram to be in. Boko haram echoed slavetaking practices of girls and young women for sexual purposes by algerian islamists in the 1990s and early 2000s. Untold story of boko haram, its ideology, what they want. An inquiry into the boko haram ideology and practices. Ideological factors help to define the evolution of terrorist organisations, influenced by the domestic and global political context. This book is the first attempt to understand boko haram in a comprehensive and consistent way. As boko haram continues its fight in northern nigeria, atta barkindo examines the cultural and ethnic ties of the insurgency. In 2015, boko haram leader abubakar shekau pledged allegiance to abu bakr albaghdadi, the leader of the islamic state, and boko haram became known as islamic states west africa province iswap. Boko haram literally means western education is forbidden.
Experts believe that albarnawi is the son of boko harams original founder, mohammed yusuf, and was previously the spokesman of boko haram under shekau. The recent rise of jihadist movements in west africa, including boko haram in the lake chad region and alqaeda in the islamic maghreb and its affiliates in the sahelsaharan region, has puzzled many observers. Yusuf, the founder of boko haram, was killed by government forces while in custody, allegedly while trying to escape, after the july 2009 uprisings in northeastern nigeria mamman nur 2002 to january 2012. Democratic party to boko haram, casts the nigerian political party the all progressives congress as an islamist organiza tion, and accuses emir of kano muhammadu sanusi ii a target of boko haram of supporting the sect. It does not indicate territorial control by the group.
The current leadership split within boko haram on 2 august 2016, the daesh in its propaganda magazine alnaba named abu musab albarnawi as the new wali or leader of iswap. Boko haram is a radical islamist movement shaped by its nigerian context and reflecting nigerias history of poor governance and extreme poverty in the north. Boko haram periodically conducts attacks beyond this area. Boko haram is an islamist extremist group responsible for dozens of massacres of civilians and the abduction of more than 500 women. Centre for counter terrorism, the hague, march 20, available at.
Boko haram raided a bank in misau, bauchi state, killing 5 policemen, robbing the bank, killing 4 soldiers a day after, different parts of borno and yobe states came under attacks by the sect in november, 2011. The ideological evolution of boko haram in nigeria. Boko harams ideology is premised on an extreme islamic teaching that rejects most western ideas and institutions as unislamic. Boko haram and radical ideology in islamic jurisprudence and international law. Untold story of boko haram, its ideology, what they want and. What do we know about drivers of radicalisation and violent. Releasing the bin laden files showing contacts between al qaedas senior leaders and boko haram would help us better understand the. Jacob zenn, atta barkindo and nicholas a heras examine the ideological motivations that influenced the transformation of boko haram from local salafism to international jihadism. As for its sic importance to us, its because of it removes that military presence from the lands of the islamic state, and hence establish the shariah islamic law of allah in the region, and attain safety and security in. Boko haram refers to a group of islamist militant factions in northern nigeria that trace their ideological origins to the slain imam mohammed yusuf 1970 2009. He argues that the groups ideology is ultimately religiously focused, but draws on deep ethnic and cultural roots to recruit members and sustain its momentum. In 2002, an offshoot of this youth group not yet known as boko haram declared the city and the islamic establishment to be intolerably corrupt and irredeemable. For years, boko haram has been conducting a lethal jihadist insurgency in the countrys north to drive out government forces and establish an islamic state. Boko haram and sexual violence as a weapon of warfare banu.
Frequently asked questions congressional research service summary boko haram, a violent nigerian islamist movement, has grown increasingly active and deadly in its attacks against state and civilian targets in recent years, drawing on a narrative of victimization. Boko haram started as a movement that criticised the corrupt, oilwealthy government of nigeria and became a provider for the poor undertaking statelike welfare functions in northeast nigeria. Split in isisaligned boko haram group al jazeera center. Members are largely nigerians immigration pro, 19 november 2011. Despite declaring a caliphate, boko haram has made little attempt at governing the territory it has captured. Boko harams ideology is premised on an extreme islamic teaching that. Boko haram gained international attention in 2014, where the insurgency abducted 276 girls from a boarding school in chibok in northern nigeria. The ideology of boko haram, a nigerian jihadi group that has pledged allegiance to the islamic state, is often described as opposition to. Nur was thirdincommand under yusuf and secondincommand under shekau. Boko haram is an isisaligned jihadist group based in nigeria. The group was founded in 2002 by an islamist cleric named mohammed yusuf in response. The hausa applied the term boko to western forms of education so when the term haram is appended to it the intent is. The alqaida in the lands beyond boko haram raided sufi shrines, and in 2012, boko haram issued thirtyeight the sahel cell kidnapped a british and in konna, boko haram members aided statements, five of which centred on an italian hostage in birnin kebbi in may.82 484 1054 1328 1152 1376 574 1194 807 1009 729 667 619 1395 1056 614 901 1312 920 960 466 812 374 10 244 1026 379 942 1299 1350 485 580 222 1482 1263 291 333 966 706 321 1118 1374 360 248 52 233