The diagnosis includes a spectrum of inherited or acquired. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with immunotherapy. Hlh may be diagnosed in association with malignant, genetic, or autoimmune diseases but is also prominently. Note that bone marrow haemophagocytosis is not mandatory for a diagnosis of hlh. The cumulative experiences from hlh94 and other studies have led to the development of a new treatment protocol presented here, hlh2004, which includesupdated diagnosticand therapeutic guidelinesfrom the. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a lifethreatening disease due to a highly stimulated but ineffective immune response, with uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and macrophages that may lead to multisystem failure. Treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with.
Hemophagocytic syndromes and infection volume 6, number. Familial and acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Chemoimmunotherapy for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. A retrospective analysis of case records of 52 children diagnossed with hlh was performed. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh, is an uncommon, lifethreatening hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by severe hypercytokinemia with excessive activation of lymphocytes and macrophages due to a highly stimulated but ineffective immune process. Pdf hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh covers a wide array of related lifethreatening conditions featuring ineffective immunity characterized. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a rare disorder of the immune system primarily affecting young infants and children, although it can develop for the first time at any age. Pmc images search for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a disorder in which the immune system produces too many activated immune cells lymphocytes called t cells, natural killer cells, b cells, and macrophages histiocytes. Approach to hemophagocytic syndromes histiocytosis association. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis genetics. Pdf hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a disorder charecterised by immune dysregulation. To investigate the clinical features of adult patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh and to explore possible risk factors for death, we.
This article describes lung involvement in hlh and assesses whether it affects the prognosis. Symptoms may include fever, enlarged liver or spleen, cytopenia decreased number of blood cells, and neurological abnormalities. Hlh can be primary or secondary to an autoimmune process, immunodeficiency, malignancy, or infections. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a potentially fatal hyperinflammatory condition. Unlike other iraes, hlh triggered by immune checkpoint blockade is not well described. Hscores can be calculated using an online hscore calculator. We analyzed the underlying diseases, clinical characteristics, 1aboratory. This study aims to describe the incidence, clinical and biological features, and outcome. The hscore11 generates a probability for the presence of secondary hlh. This syndrome can sometimes occur in normal people with medical problems that can cause a strong activation of the immune system, such as infection or cancer. B evolving view of the risk factors inducing hlh development. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a potentially fatal hyperinflammatory condition caused by a highly stimulated, but ineffective immune response, characterized by a dysregulated activation and proliferation of macrophages leading to.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is not one condition but descriptive of a lifethreatening, hyperinflammatory syndrome with multiorgan involvement with a variety of triggers, both genetic and environmental. Hemophagocytic syndrome an overview sciencedirect topics. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a lifethreatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lymphocytes and. It can be an inherited condition, or it can occur as a result of immunosuppression as in organ transplants or infection.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is an unusual syndrome characterized by fever, splenomegaly, jaundice, and the pathologic finding of. Hemophagocytic syndromes and infection centers for disease. A high index of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis and treatment. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a rare disease that usually occurs in infants and young children. Cutaneous manifestations of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The initial clinical presentation commonly includes fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia.
Histiocyte society hlh2004 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a lifethreatening event that usually occurs as a complication of immunodeficiency. The primary genetic form, caused by mutations affecting lymphocyte cytotoxicity and immune regulation, is most common in children, whereas the secondary acquired form is most frequent in adults. A rare, cancerlike disorder in which both certain types of immune system cells histiocytes and lymphocytes start to proliferate and damage body tissues or organs.
The incidence varies based on ethnicity, particularly in populations in which consanguinity is common. Pediatric hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh blood. People with hlh usually develop symptoms within the first months or years of life. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a rare but lifethreatening hyperinflammatory.
Hereditary and acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a syndrome of severe immune activation with macrophage and tcell infiltration resulting in, multi organ damage. It was first described in 1952 by farquhar and claireaux and named familial hemophagocytic reticulosis as a familial disease characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia with illness, and irritability during. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis mimicking septic shock. A case of pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma with. Acute kidney injury in adults with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis florence aulagnon, md,1 nathanael lapidus, md, phd,2,3.
Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis has a high mortality rate among adults despite recent advances in treatment. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children springerlink. The term secondary hlh is used when your doctor thinks the condition may have occurred for a variety of other noninherited reasons. The true incidence remains uncertain, and the diagnosis is challenged both by the lack of recognition of hemophagocytic syndrome and by uncertain diagnostic criteria. Filipovich, helmut gadner, shinsaku imashuku, diane komp, stephan ladisch, david webb, and gritta janka, for the histiocyte. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh, also known as hemophagocytic syndrome, is a rare disease mainly in children that is characterized by persistent spiky fever and hemophagocytosis by activated macrophages. Background hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal disorder of activated histiocytes. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a rare lifethreatening disease of severe hyperinflammation caused by uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and.
Hscores greater than 169 are 93% sensitive and 86% specific for hlh. Familial forms result from genetic defects in natural killer cells and. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis gene sequencing panel description. It is a lifethreatening condition that can be defined as either primary or secondary hlh. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adults.
Isolated reports have described the development of hlh in patients with infection due to ehrlichia chaffeensis, transmitted through the. Treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with hlh. Hlh, or hemophagocytic syndrome, is a rare and almost universally fatal condition in adults. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is an acute, lifethreatening syndrome that occurs in children and young adults typified by reactive proliferation of histiocytes in the bone marrow, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes with characteristic hemophagocytosis in affected tissues and over. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh, also known as macrophage activation syndrome when occurring in the setting of a rheumatologic disorder, is a nonmalignant but oftenfatal disorder of immune dysregulation affecting multiple organs. Skin eruptions are described in up to 65% of patients. Medical definition of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Recommendations for the management of hemophagocytic. Characteristic features include unremitting fever, cytopenias, hepatosplenomegaly, and elevation of typical hlh biomarkers. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh, also known as hemophagocytic syndrome hps, is a rare, lifethreatening, hematologic disorder. Hlh comprises two different conditions that may be. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a rare and devastating disorder of uncontrolled immune activation that has gained increasing.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in pediatric patients. Hereditary and acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis ling zhang, md, jun zhou, md, and lubomir sokol, md, phd background. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a lifethreatening disease due to uncontrolled immune activation. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh covers a wide array of related lifethreatening conditions featuring ineffective immunity characterized by an uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response. A a gradient of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh severity correlates with the defect in cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes that results from various genetic defects in humans and mice. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocystosis johns hopkins medicine. A case report of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh. It is described as primary hlh familial hlh and secondary hlh acquired following malignancy, rheumatologic disorders, primary immune deficiencies or infection alone. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a severe hyperinflammatory syndrome induced by aberrantly activated macrophages and cytotoxic t cells. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis genetic and. Neonatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis american. Pulmonary involvement in patients with hemophagocytic. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a syndrome characterized by extreme immune activation, resulting in pathologic inflammation. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a severe systemic inflammatory syndrome that can be fatal.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a disorder of widespread accumulation of lymphocytes and mature macrophages, sometimes with hemophagocytosis, primarily involving the spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver, and cerebral spinal fluid. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a poten. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is an aggressive syndrome characterized by abnormal, excessive activation of the immune system. Pediatric hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh read. Of the 52 children % n 7 had familial hlh and 87% n.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a syndrome describing patients with severe systemic hyperinflammation. Acute kidney injury akiin the setting of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is poorly characterized. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a lifethreatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic t lymphocytes, natural killer nk cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. Information specific to adult hlh is limited, and current diagnostic. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical. Primary, or familial, hlh is when the condition is inherited.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis radiology reference. The incidence of neonatal hlh is not confirmed and may range from 1 in 50,000 to 150,000. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis gene sequencing panel. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a condition in which the body makes too many activated immune cells macrophages and lymphocytes. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Hlh2004 chemoimmunotherapy includesetoposide,dexamethasone,cyclos porine a upfront and, in selected patients, intrathecal therapy with methotrexate and corticosteroids. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh, a rare but potentially fatal syndrome of immune hyperactivation, may be an underrecognized immunerelated adverse event irae. Sebastian fn bode, kai lehmberg, andrea maulpavicic, thomas vraetz, gritta janka, udo zur stadt, stephan ehl. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a rapidly progressive, lifethreatening syndrome of excessive immune activation. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is an unusual syndrome characterized by fever, splenomegaly, jaundice, and the pathologic finding of hemophagocytosis phagocytosis by macrophages of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and their precursors in bone marrow and other tissues.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is extremely rare in the neonatal period. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh has become more widely recognized in adults, with all ages affected. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a disease with major diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh covers a wide array of related diseases including hlh, autosomal recessive familial hlh fhl. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a lifethreatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lym phocytes and. To study the profile of children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh in a tertiary care hospital for children. It may occur as a primary genetic condition due to mutations in. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a lifethreatening syndrome in which an uncontrolled and ineffective immune response, triggered in most cases by infectious agents, leads to severe hyperinflammation. Treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with hlh 94 immunochemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. In adults, many different conditions, including infections and cancer, can cause hlh.
Familial forms of hlh fhl, which are increasingly found also in adolescents and adults, are due to genetic defects leading to impaired function of natural killer cells and cytotoxic t. Hlh is a rare but potentially lifethreatening disorder that results from natural killer and cytotoxic tcell dysregulation leading to cytokine overproduction and. Prompt initiation of treatment for hlh is essential for the survival of affected patients. According to a large populationbased study published in sweden, it was estimated to occur in 1. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a clinical syndrome characterized by the accumulation of activated t lymphocytes and welldifferentiated macrophages histiocytes in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver. Lung involvement in hlh has received little attention. Patients can develop hepatitis, coagulopathy, liver failure, central nervous system involvement, multiorgan failure, and other manifestations. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis hlh is a lifethreatening disease where an underlying immune defect or triggering event initiates excessive activation of immune cells macrophages and lymphocytes leading to multiorgan dysfunction and failure.728 1433 663 686 1107 952 1527 825 784 550 75 435 928 655 1024 958 174 1222 690 639 830 607 1285 459 136 473 81 374 515 217 356 207 130 376